Szukam informacji o rodzinie Bosakowski z Zalozce, Milno i Blich. Moja babcia Katarzyna Bosakowska urodził się w Zalozce w 1889 roku. Wyemigrowała do USA w 1912 roku - jeden z około 20 członków rodziny, którzy również wyemigrowali pomiędzy 1905/21.
Zrobiłem wiele badań z rejestrów kościelnych i innych źródeł. Są one publikowane na moim blogu: http://kowalfamilyhistory.wordpress.com
Rodzina pochodzi z Milno. Jan i Anna Baran Bosakowski miał siedmioro dzieci. Niektóre z nich przebywał w Milno inni przeniesiony do Zalozce. I napisał o Bosakowskis z Milno tutaj: http://kowalfamilyhistory.wordpress.com/2011/10/14/the-bosakowskis-of-milno-part-1-of-2/
Rodzina Bosakowski w Zalozce wszystkie pochodzą od Bazylego Bosakowski (1822 -?), Który poślubił Rozalię Kwasnicka i miał ośmioro dzieci. Pisałem o Bazlyli i Rozalii tutaj: http://kowalfamilyhistory.wordpress.com/2011/12/04/the-laboriosus-who-became-an-oppidanus/
Ich najstarszy syn, Józef (1847 -?), Był moim pradziadkiem. Józef poślubił Marię Buczna (1863 -?). Trzy z ich dziećmi wyemigrowała do USA. Ale ich najmłodsi bracia, Stanisław (1898 -?) I Władysław (1900 -?), Zatrzymaliśmy się w Zalozce i osiedli w 1945 koło Poznania i Katowic. Piszę o Stanisława i Władysława tutaj: http://kowalfamilyhistory.wordpress.com/2011/12/30/christmas-cards-from-behind-the-iron-curtain/
Mam jeszcze wiele pytań. Jeśli masz jakiekolwiek informacje na temat rodziny Bosakowski, chciałbym usłyszeć od ciebie. Dziękuję!
(Przetłumaczone przez Google Translate - proszę wybaczyć błędy.)<br><br><br><br>I am looking for information about the Bosakowski family of Zalozce, Milno and Blich. My grandmother Katarzyna Bosakowska was born in Zalozce in 1889. She emigrated to the USA in 1912 - one of approximately 20 family members who also emigrated between 1905-1921.
I have done extensive research from church records and other sources. They are published on my blog: https://kowalfamilyhistory.wordpress.com/
I have traced the history of the Bosakowski family back to a family in Milno. Jan Bosakowski and Anna Baran had seven children. Some of them stayed in Milno while others moved to Zalozce. I wrote about the Bosakowskis of Milno here: http://kowalfamilyhistory.wordpress.com/2011/10/14/the-bosakowskis-of-milno-part-1-of-2/
The Bosakowski family in Zalozce all descend from Bazyli Bosakowski (1822-?) who married Rozalia Kwasnicka and had eight children. I wrote about Bazlyli and Rozalia here: http://kowalfamilyhistory.wordpress.com/2011/12/04/the-laboriosus-who-became-an-oppidanus/
Their oldest son, Jozef (1847-?), was my great-grandfather. Jozef married Maria Buczna (1863-?). Three of their children emigrated to the USA. But their youngest brothers, Stanislaw (1898-?) and Wladyslaw (1900-?), stayed in Zalozce and resettled in 1945 near Poznan and Katowice. I write about Stanislaw and Wladyslaw here:
I still have many questions. If you have any information about the Bosakowski family, I would love to hear from you. Thank you!
Edytowane przez JKowal dnia 02-04-2013 22:14
I saw your website about your ancestors, is very interesting.
Unfortunately we use exactly the same historical sources - metrical books from the Roman Catholic parish Załoźce 1816-1900 (with some missing years) and book of births from the village Milno 1826-1886. About Bosakowski family we do not have more information than you. A rather less, because we are only beginning to collect scans. Many pages are still missing.
A something other than a church books. Lists for tax purposes, for the Austrian state. There are only listed the main farmers (owners, people who pay taxes). And all of land parcels, gardens, meadows, and so forth. You could to find from these papers how much land owned Bosakowski family in ca. 1820 (and what sort). And if did they lived in Milno already in ca. 1787. Or who previously (in 1787) owned Bosakowski's land and their house.
We have similar materials from the villages Troscianiec Wielki i Olejów. Our benefactors bought those for us local in Lwów (Lviv).
It is also possible to order copies online. A few years ago, they sent scans on a CD, by regular mail. I do not have recent information. But it is not cheap. I do not know exact price complete copies from the village Milno. This depends on number of pages to be scanned. Probably about $ 200 U.S. (or slightly more). You'd have to ask himself in the archive.
If you were interested, I can give you an e-mail.
Greetings from Poland
Remigiusz Paduch, administrator
Thank you very much for your response!
Like you, I have thoroughly reviewed the metrical books for Zalozce and the list of births from Milno. I have found many of my ancestors but there are still gaps. Do you know why the metrical books only start in 1816? For other places in the Austrian Empire, the records go back to 1785.
Thank you also for the information on the two Austrian cadastral surveys. I have been trying to locate the cadastral maps for Zalozce and Milno. It has been difficult to figure out how to do this. Should I contact the archive in Lviv? Please do send me the email address and any advice you have on the best way to make an inquiry.
Do the records you obtained for Troscianiec Wielki and Olejow also contain maps? On the web I have seen beautiful color maps for other towns and villages (see this website, for example: http://www.fig.net/hsm/franz.htm). I would love to be able to purchase those.
Finally, as I said, I have researched the metrical books thoroughly and would be happy to share any information I have.
Bardzo dziekuje r11; and greetings from New York!
1. Metrical books for Zalozce. The answer is already on your website. With photo "Ruins of the Roman Catholic church in Zalozce during World War I." Presbytery was also burned. And together with him were burned all the old church books, stored in Załoźce since 1654. The only remained book of births from the village Milno, probably stored elsewhere (in Milno?) during this battle. "Schematismus Archidioecesis Leopoliensis ritus latini 1926" by the parish Zalozce contains the sad news: "Metric. combustae" - metrical books were burned.
Records from Zalozce, that we both can reading, they are copies made for the episcopal curia in Lviv, and stored in Lviv. Such copies began to be make until the early 19th century. Previously, priests do not have such a duty.
2. Cadastral maps. No, we do not have yet such maps. For now we have only all text pages "metryki józefińskie" i "metryki franciszkańskie" from Troscianiec Wielki and Olejow. Probably the maps are stored in another resource in the archive. We have just started the search in Lviv, with the help of friendly people.
These maps are very beautiful and colorful, which can be seen even better in the picture attached to the Ukrainian Wikipedia.
Central State Archive of Ukrainian history in Lviv
Address: postal code 79000, Ukraine, Lviv, Sobornaya square, 3a.
Contact phones: +380-32-72-30-63, +380-32-72-45-08, +380-32-97-86-57.
We have written there in 2010 on this e-mail above (email@example.com).
Greetings from Stargard Szczecinski, Poland
Next week I will be traveling to Poland and visiting Zalozce and Milno to visit the hometown of my grandmother Katarzyna Bosakowska and other Bosakowski ancestors. We will visit the archive in Lviv as well. If I get the cadastral maps for those towns, I will let you know. I will be happy to share them.
In the meantime, I saw your post on Milno na Podolu entitled "Skargi chłopów mileńskich - maj 1851." The document refers to Jan Bosakowski who was my third great-grandfather living in Milno. Very interesting! I am wondering if you have a copy of the original handwritten document. I would like to write about it on my family history blog.
As ever, many thanks for your assistance! When I write about my trip to Zalozce I will send you a link to the post in case you want to cross-post it on this site.
I wish you good luck in the archives and the good impressions from a trip to the country of your ancestors.
I would be grateful for any historic materials from Lviv. And also for contemporary pictures. We are looking for photos from the the Roman Catholic cemetery in Zalozce. Perhaps by accident you'll be there too at the time your journey?
About cadastral maps: In year 1841 manor Milno has paid 69 florins and 57 kreuzer "for the cadastral map with inventories". So such a map exist for sure. The question is whether the has retained until today?
Now, about your request for a copy of the handwritten document. I have a bit new documents for your family historii blog.
Many traces of John Bosakowski preserved in the documents of the manor Milno. He worked there for many years as a apiarist (in the ancient Polish speak: pasiecznik). He is mentioned in many manor accounts. Payment for him in cash, as well the grain for eating (manor workers, employed on the other activities, did not have time to farm works).
Forgive me for the extracts of texts in Polish. There is a plenty of difficult words, that are hard challenge for my "school English". Now I have a a lot works - actually I'm moving to another house, and in the removals background yet unceasing refurbishment.
Documents for which you asked (skarga chłopów 1851)
dnia 15 grudnia 1842
Jan Bosakowski, pasiecznik
wydano a konto I i II kwartału do 1 czerwca 1843
16 garncy pszenicy ozimej "czelnej"
1 korzec i 24 garnce żyta "czelnego"
1 korzec i 16 garncy jęczmienia "czelnego"
1 korzec hreczki "czelnej"
8 garncy grochu
Thank you so much for this information about my ancestor Jan Bosakowski! From my review of the metrical books, I guessed that he must have lived on the manor (for much of his life the address was Milno 1). But knowing he was a apiarist (or beekeeper) makes his life seem much more real to me. I look forward to studying these links more closely in the coming days.
Thank you also for the information about the Milno cadastral map. I will do my best to get it - and will be happy to share anything. The archives have never replied to any of my emails, but I have a contact in Lviv who is helping me so I am optimistic!
I will write more after I return.
PS: Good luck with your house project!
A couple of extra information about your ancestor.
Jan Bosakowski earned in cash 5 florins per quarter, or 20 florins per year, plus compensation in kind. As for the manor Milno at the time it was a a large sum. The standard payment for the manor worker - including other beekeepers - amounted 3 florins 45 kreuzer per quarter, or 15 florins per year (before the currency reform 1 florin = 60 kreuzer). Only the main shepherd Hrynko Podpieniak and beekeeper Jan Bosakowski received 5 florins quarterly in cash. Their salaries were slightly higher because they were specialist in their profession.
Of course these are marginal sum, compared to the salaries of manor "management". Mr. Judge earned 125 florins per quarter, a writer in the manor office 62 florins 30 kreuzer quarterly, a chief forester 25 florins quarterly.
Beekeepers typically lived at their apiaries. In addition to the caring for bees, they also had to be guardians against thieves and (in some areas) against wild animals. But the births of his children could be done in other houses in the village, where it was easier to help, in case of any complications.
item 43 also belongs to Jan Bosakowski apiary too (strikeout the Roman number "2" indicates, that this item belong to apiary No "I" ):
"Opisanie krótkie: Pomieszkanie pasiecznika grodzone, słomą pokryte i stajenka na bydło.
Uwaga: Dobre, nie potrzebuje reparacji"
Such apiaries were generally located outside the village. Sometimes beekeepers lived in them only seasonally, but in the winter they returned to their homes inside the village, and the beehives were transferred to a building called "stebnik". However for the apiary of John Bosakowski old document indicates that "stebnik" was located nearby. So beekeeper lived there year round, even in winter.
At his cottage Bosakowski kept some domestic animals - in this "stable for cattle" ("stajenka na bydło" ), stored in the document. In addition, he leased some land, for which he paid to the manor Milno five florins a year. Perhaps this leased land was used for growing potatoes, or for grazing animals.
lines 13, 14, 15, 16
"Odebrano od Jana Bosakowskiego czynszu gruntowego za rok 1850 do 1 listopada 1850 - 5 florenów.
Wypłacono temuż jako Pasiecznikowi zasług kwartalnych od 1 sierpnia do 1 listopada 1850 - 5 florenów."
In 1849 Jan Bosakowski have to pay a fee for the lease of fruit trees in ground of his apiary. In my opinion, a great disservice been done to him then. The sum of 12 florins was huge - more than its half-year earnings. And in the accounts of previous years, I never saw such fees. Probably your ancestor before 1849 could use the fruit trees in his apiary for free. This obvious injury was the result of an historical event - abolition of serfdom in the Austrian part of Poland (1848). Manors, deprived of of some revenues, trying to look for savings, often at the cost of the multiannual and loyal employees.
lines 19, 20
"Odebrano od Bosakowskiego za wyarendowanych drzewek fruktowych [=owocowych] w pasiekach skarbowych - 12 florenów.
And now a little about his additional income. In addition to beekeeping Jan Bosakowski was also a skilled craftsman. He was able to produce wooden barrels and watering cans. In 1843 the manor Milno paid him money for the extra works.
lines 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
"Janowi Bosakowskiemu za robotę bednarską dla Skarbu a mianowicie 12 sztuk podstawów [= nie wiem, co oznacza to słowo], 12 konewek usznych do wódki, 3 nowe półbeczki na miód, 1 beczka do wożenia wody w folwarku, 1 beczka na mąkę do Medyki, 4 korce w sobie zawierająca - wypłacono 3 floreny i 43 krajcary."
In the manor accounts have been preserved also traces of two Jan Bosakowski journeys.
In autumn 1844 he went to Medyka together with transport of pea and honey from Milno. In Medyka resided Squire Gwalbert Pawlikowski, owner of manor Milno. This town is located exactly at the current Polish-Ukrainian border (Medyka is border crossing point on the Polish side). So you can imagine how it was far from Milno. In this part of the Austrian Empire was not yet railways, or even surfaced roads. Squire Pawlikowski traveled in a own horse carriage. The "middle class" (for example, Mr. Judge) used the Austrian Post stagecoaches, called "Eilwagen" (this word I saw in the documents of Milno). And ordinary people from Milno, traveled the wagon pulled by oxen. From the manor went two coachmen (their names are not written) and one trusted employee who had to guard transportation. Such a journeys were not always safe. Occasionally occurred thefts. In one year, from the transport from Milno to Medyka were stolen goods (probably canvas). The guard, named Błażko Myśliwiec, had later troubles. Fell out of favor, and also had to give some money from his payment, as compensation for stolen goods.
Bosakowski arrived happily and received travel reimbursement - 7 florin and 30 kreuzer. Big money, more than its quarterly earnings.
lines 13, 14, 15, 16
"2 furom jadącym z grochem i miodem do Medyki podrożczyzny (= zwrotu kosztów podróży] - 3 floreny i 36 krajcarów
Pasiecznikowi Bosakowskiemu na drogę do Medyki z wyrachowania się - 7 florenów i 30 krajcarów"
In summer 1849 Jan Bosakowski drove on business to the village Pieniaki (manor estate of Count Dzieduszycki), to buy beehives.
lines 10, 11, 12
"Zapłacono w Pieniakach za 250 ulów - 208 florenów i 20 krajcarów
Pisarzowi w Pieniakach od wybrania najlepszych ulów, Skowrońskiemu, Bosakowskiemu i trzem fornalom strawne - 5 florenów i 45 krajcarów"
And at the end - where exactly in Milno lived John Bosakowski? That, unfortunately, I failed to determine. In the collection of the historical project "Milno na Podolu" is actually over 4,000 (four thousand! ) scans of various old documents. Most of them are manor bills. For accurate reading, line by line, I need probably weeks. Unfortunately, I could spend just one day. I did not notice nowhery the location of the Bosakowski's apiary. In contrast to other apiaries, this was called always "Pasieka Bosakowskiego".
However, I have a hypothesis.
Scan http://www.olejow.pl/remek/forum/pasieki_1851_01.jpg identifies a total of six manor apiaries in year 1851
- apiary of Jan Bosakowski (with cottage) - unknown location
- apiary of Kowalski [Jan] (with cottage) - location "Na Halawie"
- apiary of Kociubiński [Wojtek] (without cottage) - unknown location
- apiary of Gliński [Marcin] (with cottage) - location "w Głuchym Gaju"
- apiary of unknown apiarist [Pastuszczyn Maćko or Wojtko] (with cottage) - location "pod Dworem" ("near the manor" )
- apiary of unknown apiarist [Pastuszczyn Maćko or Wojtko] (without cottage) - location "od granicy Mszanieckiej" ("near the border with dominium Mszaniec" )
On this list is nowhere mentioned apiary located in a place called "Na Drańczej Górze". And this apiary already existed in 1808 and was used until the Second World War. Prior to 1944 was owned by the family Krąpiec and was called "Krzomciowa Pasieka". Hill 377 on the map of 1911. See the maps:
In my opinion Jan Bosakowski's apiary was located outside the village Milno, just on the "Drańcza Góra" (another name "Drańcze" ), on a wooded hill near the village of Gontowa. But this is only a my hypothesis, not yet confirmed in the documents.
I hope that all this information will be useful to you. I myself have intend to use it soon (in Polish) in the new article on www site "Milno na Podolu" .
I have not been back to this page since we corresponded in August. So I have not seen until just now these wonderful translations you provided me. Wow! This is an amazing window into the life of my ancestor Jan Bosakowski. Thank you so much for taking the time to do this!
I will study this more closely over the weekend and provide you with a more detailed response. For now, I can tell you that I recognize the names of two of the other apiarists. Marcin Glinski (1818-1874) was Jan's son-in-law, married to his daughter Tekla. And Wojtek Kociubinski is often listed as a godfather for Bosakowski children.
Again, I will study all this and write more soon. In the meantime, I can tell you that I traveled to Zalozce and briefly to Blich and Milno back in August. I am writing a blog post that will describe the trip in detail. I have also posted photos in a gallery:
I also went to Lviv to visit the Central State Historical Archive. The good news is that, with the help of a Ukrainian friend, I was able to get in during the August vacation and to actually inspect the cadastral map for Zalozce. I paid for a copy or scan, but I am still waiting to get it. My friend, again, is trying to help. I did take a decent high resolution photo which you can download from this gallery page:
Unfortunately, they could not locate the accompanying protocols. They produced documents for Zalesie instead. They promised to look further so I'm hopeful they will turn up. They also suggested I try the Ternopil archive - and I have a friend there who promised to look. But I saw in the directory of the Lviv archive that they do have the protocols for Lviv, so I believe they must be there.
I spent only one day in Lviv, which was a mistake. I am prepared to go back next year (not during the summer) and make my own photo scan if necessary.
Finally, I can tell you that I asked about a cadastral map for Milno. They say they do not have it and do not believe a map was done. I find this hard to believe. I have maps for very small villages in Slovakia, much smaller than Milno. I did look through multiple pages of the map (its was 20 pages total). The other pages were mostly of uninhabited land. I did not see Milno.
I will write again soon. Once again, I am so grateful for all the help you have provided me. Dziekuje bardzo!!
Beautiful color map. Congratulations even for this photo.
And you look closely.
The black digits are the numbers of houses. These numbers, (so called conscription numbers - in polish "numery konskrypcyjne" ) allocated by the Austrian State, did not change, so the match to church books. See to the right side of the image. Number 1 is the old castle, which can be seen by the shape, i red colour. To the left of the castle, in red too, is the former Augustinian monastery (marked by number 2). And to the left of him, on the probably old town market (large place), is house number 109, in which resided Bazyli Bosakowski, according to old church books. Voilà! Home of your ancestors!
On the left side of the photo I recognized too a house No. 380 (actually a complex of several buildings, tagged together by this one number). This is a local hospital, led by the nuns (in polish called "Siostry Miłosierdzia" - Sisters of Mercy?), where the poor people of whole neighborhood were treated free of charge, as well as Newcomer who in Załoźce suddenly fallen seriously ill.
In question of old maps of village Milno, it's bad news. But the maps of Olejów can not be found too. In archiv were only sketches for such maps, on multiple sheets. Here you can see one sample, the area around the the Counts Palace (building No 1). http://www.olejow.pl/remek/forum/dwor_fot2.jpg
Does color map of Olejów was created based on this sketch? It is unknown. But the map of the village Milno existed certainly. There are traces in the old manor papers, as I wrote above.
The archive in Lviv is unfortunately difficult place. They work there different "remnants of communism", for which each visitor is just an annoyance. Here in Poland was like in the early 90s, but now it has changed for the better. If Ukraine will remain pro-Western course, maybe at them something will better. Unless this bandit Putin and his thugs are not causing any a major war there. Every war in that area, bringing burned archives, and less and less information about our ancestors.
At the moment, to use the resources of the archive Lviv, needed are some local helpers. Well that you have found help.
Edytowane przez Remek dnia 02-11-2014 21:08
Thank you, Remek, for this additional information. I will keep looking for this stuff and I will share whatever I get.
I have two quick questions for you: First, do you think the central market area was the large square marked 4185? That would make the most sense. Most towns were organized this way. It's just that there is so little there today that I wonder.
Second, I was struck by the name St. Jacobus. I have seen the church referred to as St. Antoni. Is that your understanding? Why would it say St. Jacobus on the map? Also, do you know if the Greek Catholic church is named St. Trinitas (Holy Trinity)?
Augustinian monastery was located in a part of town called Załoźce Nowe, on a hill on the east bank of the Seret River, east of the road to Ternopil. This hill is too existing on the image (in the background). The former Augustinian church, dedicated to święty Wawrzyniec (St. Lawrence), after erasing the Augustinian Order in Austria (1787), in 1790, was sold to Greek Catholic, to charge 2789 florin. Greek Catholics changed dedication to cerkiew Opieki Matki Bożej (I do not know how to proper English - Care of Our Lady?). Thereby in Załoźce were two Greek-Catholic parishes: Załoźce Stare at the cerkiew Holy Trinity, and Załoźce Nowe at the cerkiew Opieki Matki Bożej.
The rest of the monastery buildings was submitted in 1801 to the Roman Catholic nuns.
In my opinion old central market area was just on the parcel 4185. This indicates a urbanization layout, and a some important building, marked by flag (house nr 94) - maybe the seat of authorities or a court. But it appears, that the trade fair was after a certain time relocated to another place. In the old market was not enough space, and I know from the literature and stories of my relatives in my childhood, that in Załoźce took place large fairs (in polish: jarmarki), for the entire area. For residents Olejow, Trościaniec and other villages it was such a "window on the world".
I added today an interesting article about life in Załoźce about 1888, ie in the time of Bazyli Bosakowski. The author writes a little poetry, a little humorous, but publishes lots of interesting details about the small town. I do not know if you can handle the translation. There is a fragment that Załoźce were located on the former black moors, and in the rainy season the town was filled out with mud and silt.
A local residents hammered into the ground wooden stumps, called "skakun" (a Ukrainian word - in english maybe "jumper"?), and jumping at those stumps, they rescued himself during the downpour. Author there adds that in a similar Galician town Radziechów, a cow had drowned in the middle of the town market. We do not know, if this is a "black legend", or the actual event, in any case this is a humorous summary typical roads and sidewalks in poor localities in Galicia.
Now to your questions about the churchs. Name Holy Trinity is confirmed in the lists of the Greek-Catholic clergy. But the name St. Jacobus is some mistake on the map. And name St. Antoni is also mistake. To St. Antoni was dedicated one of the two side chapels (this located on the left side of the central nave). This Roman-Catholic church (as a whole) was named kościół parafialny pod wezwaniem Matki Boskiej Niepokalanie Poczętej w Załoźcach (Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary).
I recommend you a very interesting book in Polish - "Kościoły i klasztory rzymskokatolickie dawnego Województwa Ruskiego" tom 13. There are three chapters on churches in Załoźce.
"Kościół jest usytuowany na północno-wschodnim krańcu Załoziec Starych, na skraju łąk nad Seretem, na zachód od zamku, na parceli zbliżonej do kwadratu. Z prezbiterium zwróconym na północny wschód, w stronę dawnej ulicy Bolesława Pierackiego; murowany z kamienia łamanego z użyciem cegły w partii sklepień, tynkowany. Na rzucie krzyża łacińskiego, z krótką, półtoraprzęsłową nawą (półprzęsło południowe mieści chór muzyczny) oraz centralizującą częścią północną, złożoną z przęsła krzyżowego, oraz przylegających do niego trzech niemal jednakowych apsyd na rzucie połowy dwunastoboku, stanowiących prezbiterium oraz kaplice boczne, pod wezwaniem Świętego Antoniego (po lewej stronie) i Najświętszego Serca Jezusa (po prawej stronie). W narożnik pomiędzy apsydą prezbiterialną a kaplicą Św. Antoniego wbudowana niewielka zakrystia założona na nieregularnym, wielobocznym rzucie. Od frontu prostokątna kruchta."
Mam trochę materiałów opracowanych przez naszego Czytelnika, Pana Rogera Zawadowskiego (drzewka Zawadowskich i Górali). Zacząłem je wprowadzać latem, ale wciąż brak czasu na dokończenie. Mam teraz na głowie różne problemy osobiste, w tym "fachowców" którzy od początku września znęcają się nad remontem mojego domu. Aktualnie nie mam nawet dachu nad głową - całkiem dosłownie, bo stary dach mi te gałgany zdjęły w październiku, a nowy wciąż nie położony, choć już połowa listopada się zbliża. I tak się razem z panami "fachowcami" męczymy.